Instead of going into bankruptcy, everyone, including the States, was provided with the opportunity to use the new Federal Reserve Notes, called (incorrectly) “lawful money” grounded in perpetual debt of the “eligible paper” which formed the assets of the Federal Reserve and the National Banks, These are also known as “units of monetized debt”. paid or already been paid off for anything since that infamous day of June 5, 1933 when Roosevelt willfully and knowingly stole Our gold and gave it to a bunch of foreign bankers. (Lawfully, debts can only be paid with money – money as defined by the Law of the Land – The Constitution – being gold and silver coin. Anything else is not lawful money and cannot therefore lawfully “pay a debt”.) Thus, overnight, We The People became liable for specific performance on the basis of a debt action of assumpsit under the individual Laws Provider, operating outside of the Constitution and imposing an Equitable jurisdiction. A jurisdiction in which no one has any rights, where one can be compelled summarily to deliver his property without trial by Common Law jury. And the debts to the private bankers keep mounting ever higher.
Admiralty and you may maritime jurisdiction comprises 2 kinds of circumstances: (1) people of acts the full time to your highest waters or other navigable waters, and you will (2) those individuals
An effective freeborn, Sovereign Western private can not be pressed to the perpetual debtorship and you will unconscious servitude, that is, feudalistic show on the behalf of, and for the advantage of, individuals, actual or juristic, up against their Thirteenth Post from Amendments into Structure of the United states. Neither is He be compelled, for legal reasons, to just accept, or to promote informed say yes to take on, a fair jurisdiction foreign so you can his Costs away from Liberties.
During the start off government underneath the Constitution , Congress conferred for the federal district courts private cognizance “of all of the civil causes of admiralty and coastal legislation, . . . . . . ; preserving so you’re able to suitors, throughout circumstances, just the right away from a common Laws answer, where in fact the Common-law are qualified to provide it with;. . .” (step 1 STAT 77, Part nine (1789))
To phrase it differently, the next style of circumstances must have an immediate connection with coastal trade
Because jurisdiction try kept become personal, the power of legislation for a passing fancy subject must fundamentally feel from the national legislature and never about condition legislatures.
Congress enacted the Limited Liability Act on March 3, 1851. It is codified at Title 46, United States Code, Sections 181-189, as amended in 1875, 1877, 1935, 1936 and the Act of 1884. It intended to cover the entire subject of limitations, and to invest the U. S. District Courts with exclusive original cognizance of all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, exclusive of the States. This means that the States do not have any jurisdiction in admiralty and maritime matters, whatsoever.
Suits in admiralty traditionally took the form of a proceeding for the rem against the vessel, and, with exceptions to be noted, such proceedings inside rem are confined exclusively to federal admiralty courts, because the grant of exclusive jurisdiction to the federal courts by the Judiciary Act of 1789 has been interpreted as referring to the traditional admiralty action, the inside the rem action, which was not familiar into the Common law.
State courts are forbidden by the Constitution to have Admiralty jurisdiction. While State courts are permitted to deal with and check out Admiralty cases if the suitor desires, it should be an Admiralty number to start with and it must involve property, otherwise there would not be a Common Law remedy. In other words, the Common Law courts would not be competent to handle it. More than this, it would need to be tried in a Common Law court, following Common Law procedures (not Equity procedures) with a Trial by a Common Law jury.